In the communist concept, Karl Marx and his philosophy colleagues believed that workers must unite to overthrow capitalist system and seize the means of production in order to eliminate the exploitation of man by man. October Revolution of 1917 in Russia promised this opportunity for workers in that country, calling it the Soviets or councils. As time passed, the plight of workers remained the same, if not worse, under socialist regimes. Leaders persuaded people that under the final stage of socialism, the communism, things will change to the better, until socialism had collapsed under the heat of Cold War and fierce competition with free market capitalism. In today’s sense of governance, any dictatorship, proletariat or otherwise, is unacceptable to most nations, barring suppression and repression by local authorities.

In the case of China, they learned from Soviet experience to by-pass the doomsday of collapse of communism. To consolidate power, Chinese Communist Party devised a system that releases people’s entrepreneurship along capitalist principles, while maintaining supreme control of power by the Communist Party. Democracy through selection by meritocracy is unique to China. In other words, power and public responsibility are entrusted in leaders who are capable, tested and highly qualified ideologically and by merit. In ancient China there was a period of time they had had a government by scholars. Ministers, provincial govenors etc must have higher degrees in education. There were other times in ancient China when no one dared to tell the King anything, unless asked for. When things go bad, in order to inform the King, artists drew and painted strange phenomena like birds flying backwards. The Chinese were clever to think strategically.

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